Haplotype variations of three Mitochondrial DNA genes in Microtus guentheri (Danford and Alston, 1880)



Synonym site mutations do not cause any changes in the protein sequence, whereas non-synonymous site mutations alter the protein sequence, causing amino acid changes. In this study, the rates of synonymous and non-synonymous substitution (Ks-Ka values) with the mutation and nucleotide variations in the synonymous and non-synonymous were analysed in Guenther’s vole Microtus guentheri (Danford and Alston, 1880) by amplification of three gene region (Cytochrome-oxidase I (COXI), Cytochrome-b (Cyt-b) and 12S rRNA), and haplotype variations were investigated in these genes. Haplotypes were found to be 12, 14 and 7 for the COXI, Cyt-b and 12S rRNA gene regions, respectively. Based on the Jukes and Cantor Parameter (Jukes and Cantor, 1969), the nucleotide diversity values in synonymous and non-synonymous regions were found to be close to each other in the COXI and Cyt-b regions but higher than in the 12S rRNA region. In addition to nucleotide diversity, Ka values in Cyt-b and 12S rRNA regions are generally higher than Ks values (Ka/Ks>1) while Ks and Ka values are very close to each other (Ks/Ka~1) in COXI region.


Microtus guentheri, Mitochondrial DNA, Mutation.

Full Text:

PDF (Türkçe)


Adkins R.M., Gelke E.L., Rowe D., Honeycutt R.L. 2001. Molecular Phylogeny and Divergence Time Estimates for Major Rodent Groups: Evidence From Multiple Genes, Molecular Biology and Evolution, 18(5): 777-791.

Avise J.C. Molecular markers, natural history and evolution. 1994. Chapmann and Hall Inc., New York. 511 p.

Bodenheimer F.S. 1958. The present taxonomic status of the terrestrial mammals of Palestine. Bulletin Res. Coun. Israel., 7: 165-190.

Douzery E., Catzeflis F.M. 1995. Molecular evolution of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA in Ungulata (Mammalia). Journal of Molecular Evolution, 41(5): 622-636.

Ellerman J.R., Morrison-Scott T.C.S. 1951. Checklist of Palaearctic and Indian mammals 1758 to 1946. order of the Trustees of the British Museum.

Felten H., Spıtzenberger F., Storch G. 1971. Zur Kleinsäugerfauna West Anatoliens. Teil I. Senck. Biol., 52: 393-424.

Gatesy J., Amato G., Vrba E., Schaller G., DeSalle R. 1997. A cladistic analysis of mitochondrial ribosomal DNA from the Bovidae. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 7(3): 303-319.

Golenishchev F.N., Sablina O.V., Borodin P.V., Gerasimov S. 2002. Taxonomy of voles of subgenus Sumeriomys Argyropulo, 1933 (Rodentia, Arvicolinae, Microtus). Russian Journal Of Theriology, 1(1): 43-55.

Halanych K.M., Robinson T.J. 1999. Multiple substitutions affect the phylogenetic utility of cytochrome b and 12S rDNA data: examining a rapid radiation in leporid (Lagomorpha) evolution. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 48(3): 369-379.

Hall T.A. 1999. BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series, 41: 95-98.

Hanada K., Shiu S.H., Li W.H. 2007. The Nonsynonymous /synonymous substitution rate ratio versus the radical/ conservative replacement rate ratio in the evolution of mammalian genes. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 4: 467-478.

Harrison D.L., Bates P.J.J. 1991. The Mammals of Arabia. Sec. Ed., Kent/England: Harrison Zool. Museum Pub.

Hebert P.D., Ratnasingham S., de Waard J.R. 2003. Barcoding animal life: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 divergences among closely related species. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 270 (Suppl 1): S96-S99.

Irwin D.M., Kocher T.D., Wilson A.C. 1991. Evolution of the cytochrome b gene of mammals. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 32(2): 128-144.

Jaarola M., Searle J.B. 2002. Phylogeography of field voles (Microtus agrestis) in Eurasia inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Molecular Ecology, 11(12): 2613-2621.

Jukes T.H., Cantor C.R. 1969. Evolution of protein molecules. Mammalian Protein Metabolism, 3: 21-132.

Kefelioğlu H., Kryštufek B. 1999. The taxonomy of Microtus socialis group (Rodentia: Microtinae) in Turkey, with the description of a new species. Journal of Natural History, 33: 289-303.

Kıvanç E., 1978. Biometrische Untersuchungen zum Baculum von Microtus socialis und Microtus guentheri Danford Alston. Communic. Fac. Sci. Univ. Ankara (C3: Zool.) 22: 5-15.

Kryštufek B., Buzan E.V., Vohralík V., Zareıe V., Özkan B. 2009. Mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence yields new insight into the speciation of social voles in South-west Asia. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 98: 121-128.

Kryštufek B., Zorenko T., Buzan E.V. 2012. New insights into the taxonomy and phylogeny of social voles inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences. Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde, 77: 178-182.

Larkin M.A., Blackshields, G., Brown N.P., Chenna R., McGettigan P.A., McWilliam H., Valentin F., Wallace I.M., Wilm A., Lopez A., Thompson J.D., Gibson T.J, Higgins D.G. 2007. Clustal W and Clustal X version 2.0”. Bioinformatics, 23(21): 2947-2948.

Lay D.M. 1967. A Study of the Mammals of Iran: Resulting from the Street Expedition of 1962-63. Field Museum of Natural History, 54: 1-82.

Ledje C., Arnason U. 1996. Phylogenetic relationships within caniform carnivores based on analyses of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 43(6): 641-649.

Markov G., Yiğit N., Çolak E., Kocheva M., Gospodinova M. 2014. Epigenetic diversity and Similarity of the Voles of “Guentheri” Group (Mammalia: Rodentia) in Anatolian Peninsula and South-Eastern Part of the Balkan Peninsula. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica, 66(2): 159-164.

Musser G.G., Carleton M.D. 2005. Superfamily Muroidae. In: D.E. Wilson, D.A.M. Reeder (Eds.). Mammal species of the World: A taxonomic and geographic reference, 3(2): 894-1531.

Nowak R.M. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World (Vol. 1). JHU Press, 1936 p.

Pfunder M., Holzgang O., Frey J.E. 2004. Development of microarray‐based diagnostics of voles and shrews for use in biodiversity monitoring studies, and evaluation of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I vs. cytochrome b as genetic markers. Molecular Ecology, 13(5): 1277-1286.

Robins J.H., Hingston M., Matisoo-Smith E., Ross H.A. 2007. Identifying Rattus species using mitochondrial DNA. Molecular Ecology Notes, 7: 717-729.

Rozas J., Librado P., Sánchez-Del Barrio J.C., Messeguer X., Rozas R. 2010. DnaSP Version 5 Help Contents [Help File], Available with the program at http://www. ub.edu/dnasp/.

Wang C.H., Kuo C.H., Mok H.K., Lee S.C. 2003. Molecular phylogeny of elopomorph fishes inferred from mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA sequences. Zoologica Scripta, 32(3): 231-241.

Wang D., Zhang S., He F., Zhu J., Hu S., Yu J. 2009. How Do Variable Substitution Rates Influence Ka and Ks Calculations? Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics, 7(3): 116-127.

Wilson D.E., Reeder D.M. 2005. Mammal species of the world. A taxonomic and geographic reference (3rd ed.). John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Yiğit N., Çolak E. 2002. On the distribution and taxonomic status of Microtus guentheri (Danford and Alston, 1880) and Microtus lydius Blackler, 1916 (Mammalia: Rodentia) in Turkey. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 26(2): 197-204.

Yiğit N., Çolak E., Sözen M., Karataş A. 2006. Rodents of Türkiye "Türkiye Kemiricileri", Demirsoy, A. (ed.), METEKSAN A.Ş., Ankara.

Yiğit N., Markov G., Çolak E, Kocheva M., Saygılı F., Yüce D., Çam P. 2012. Phenotypic features of the ‘Guentheri’ Group Vole (Mammalia: Rodentia) in Turkey and Southeast Bulgaria: Evidence for its taxonomic detachment. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica, 64: 23-32.

Yiğit N., Çetintürk D., Çolak E. 2017. Phylogenetic assessment of voles of the Guentheri Group (Mammalia: Microtus) in Turkish Thrace and Western Anatolia. The European Zoological Journal, 84(1): 252-260.

Zardoya R., Meyer A. 1996. Phylogenetic performance of mitochondrial protein-coding genes in resolving relationships among vertebrates. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 13(7): 933-942.

Zhang Z., Yu Z. 2006. Evaluation of six methods for estimating synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates. Geno. Prot. Bioinfo., 4(3): 173-181.


  • There are currently no refbacks.