Bacillus velezensis strain MY 83295S: a p,p’-DDT-degrader isolated from a Tropical Irrigation Site

Ya'u MURTALA, Nwanguma Bennett CHIMA, Idris BALA, Lawrence UCHENNA, Sunday EZEANYIKA


Although dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is prominent in the ban list of the Stockholm Convention on the Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), there is recently an emergence of reports indicating the re-surfacing of residual DDT in the domestic waters and some commonly consumed food items. This indicated a progressive increase in the burden of DDT in the ecosystem. In this paper, we report the isolation and characterization of a bacterial strain with the ability to degrade and utilize p,p’-DDT as a sole carbon source. The strain was isolated from a tropical irrigation site and tentatively identified as Bacillus velezensis strain MY 83295S. This strain demonstrated a mesophilic nature in its aerobic degradation and utilization of the p,p’-DDT contaminant. Additionally, a low Fe concentration enhances the strain’s ability to degrade and utilize p,p’-DDT. While Cu, Pb, Hg, Ag and Cr ions have demonstrated various patterns of an inhibitory effect on the strain’s p,p’-DDT degradation ability. Strain MY 83295S showed a great potentiality for the bio-decontamination of the p,p’-DDT, and its eventual application in the bioremediation process.


Bacillus, DDT, Bioremediation, Heavy metals, Environment

Full Text:



Aislabie J.M., Richards N.K., Boul H.L. 1997. Microbial degradation of DDT and its residues-a review. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 40: 269-282

Aislabie J., Lloyd-Jones, G. 1995. A review of bacterial-degradation of pesticides. Soil Research, 33(6): 925-942.

Angle, J. S. and Chaney R.L. 1989. Cadmium resistance screening in nitrilotriacetate-buffered minimal media. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 55: 2101–2104.

Barragan-Huerta B.E., Costa-Pe´rezc C., Peralta-Cruza J., Barrera-Cortes J., Esparza-Garcı´a F., Rodrı´guez-Va´zquez, R. 2007. Biodegradation of organochlorine pesticides by bacteria grown in microniches of the porous structure of green bean coffee. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 59: 239–244.

Berkeley R.C.W., Logan N.A., Shute, L.A., Capey, A.P. 1984. Identification of Bacillus species, In Bergen, T. (ed,), Methods in Microbiology, Academic Press, Inc. ltd., London. 292-338 p.

Bidlam R., Manonmani H.K. 2002. Aerobic Degradation of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) by Serratia marcescens DT-1P. Process Biochemistry, 38:49-56.

Bussolaro D., Filipak Neto F., Glinksi A., Roche H., Guiloski I.C., Mela M., Silva de Assis H.C., Oliveira Ribeiro C.A. 2012. Bioaccumulation and related effects of PCBs and organochlorinated pesticides in freshwater fish Hypostomus commersoni. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 14(8): 2154-2163

Cao F., Liu T.X., Wu C.Y., Li F.B., Li X. M., Yu HY., Tong H. Chen, M. J. 2012. Enhanced Biotransformation of DDTs by an iron- and humic-reducing bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila HS01 upon addition of goethite and anthraquinone-2,6-disulphonic disodium salt (AQDS). Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 60:11238-11244.

Devi, N. L. 2020. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs): environmental risks, toxicological effects, and bioremediation for environmental safety and challenges for future research. In: Saxena G., Bharagava R. (eds) Bioremediation of Industrial Waste for Environmental Safety. Springer, Singapore. 53-76 pp.

Fang H., Dong B., Yan H., Tang F. Yu Y. 2010. Characterization of a bacterial strain capable of degrading DDT congeners and its use in bioremediation of contaminated soil. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 184: 281–289.

Foght J., April T., Biggar K. Aislable, K. 2001. Bioremediation of DDT-contaminated soils: A Review, Bioremediation Journal, 5(3): 225-245

Fowler L., Engqvist H., Ohman-Magi C. 2019. Effect of copper ion concentration on bacteria and cells. Materials, 12:3798.

Glass B.L. 1972. The relation between the degradation of DDT and the iron redox system in soils. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 20: 324-327.

Goto K., Omura T., Hara Y. Sadaie, Y. 2000. Application of the partial 16S rDNA sequence as an index for the rapid identification of species in the genus Bacillus. Journal of Genetics and Applied Microbiology, 46(1): 1-8.

Hadara T., Takeda M., Kojima S. Tomiyama N. 2016. Toxicity and Carcinogenicity of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), Toxicological Research, 32(1): 21-33.

Hickey WJ 1999. Transformation and fate of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil and sediment. In: Adriano DC, Bollag JM, Frankenburger WT JR, Sims RC. Bioremediation of contaminated soils. Agron. Monograph 37: 213–237.

Jill, E. Clarridge, I.I.I. 2004. Impact of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis for identification of bacteria on clinical microbiology and infectious diseases. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 17(4): 840-862

Kaushik M.N., Srivastava M. Mishra K A 2019. Iron homeostasis in Cyanobacteria. In: Cyanobacteria: from basic science to application. pp 245-260 Accessed 30 Aug 2020.

Lee A., Cheng K.C. Liu J.R. 2017. Isolation and characterization of a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain with zearalenone removal ability and its probiotic potential. PLoS ONE, 12(8): e0182220.

Mendes R.A., Lima M.O., de Deus R.J.A., Medeiros A.C., Faial K.C.F., Jesus I.M., Faial K.R.F. Santos L.S. 2019. Assessment of DDT and mercury levels in fish and sediments in the iriri river, brazil: distribution and ecological risk, Journal of Environmental Science and Health B, 9: 1-10.

Mitra, S. Roy, P. 2010. Molecular identification by 16S rDNA sequence of a novel bacterium capable of degrading trichloroethylene. Journal of Biological Sciences, 10: 637-642.

Murata T., Kanao-Koshikawa M. Takamatsu, T. 2005. Effects of Pb, Cu, Sb, In and Ag Contamination on the Proliferation of Soil Bacterial Colonies, Soil Dehydrogenase Activity, and Phospholipid Fatty Acid Profiles of Soil Microbial Communities, Water, Air and Soil pollution, 164: 103-118.

Mwangi K., Boga H.I., Muigai A.W., Kiiyukia C. Tsanuo M.K. 2010. Degradation of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) by bacterial isolates from cultivated and uncultivated soil. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 4(3): 185-196

Ogbeide O., Tongo I. Ezemonye L. 2015. Risk assessment of agricultural pesticides in water, sediment, and fish from Owan River, Edo State, Nigeria, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment., 187:654–666.

Pan X., Lin D., Zheng Y., Zhang Q., Yin Y., Cai L., Fang H. Yu, Y. 2016. Biodegradation of DDT by Stenotrophomonas sp.DDT-1: characterization and genome functional analysis. Scientific Reports, 6:21332.

Pan X., Xu T., Xu H., Fang H. Yu, Y. 2017. Characterization and genome functional analysis of the DDT-degrading bacterium Ochrobactrum sp.DDT-2, Science Total Environment, 592:593-599.

Pant G., Mistry S.K. Sibi G. 2013. Isolation, Identification and Characterization of p, p-DDT Degrading Bacteria from Soil, Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 6(8): 180-187.

Parvathi A., Krishna K., Jose J., Joseph N. Nair, S. 2009. Biochemical and molecular characterization of Bacillus pumilus isolated from the coastal environment in Cochin, India. Brazilian Journal Microbiology, 40(2): 269-275.

Reineke W., Mandt C., Kaschabek S.R. Pieper D.H. 2011. Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Metabolism. In: eLS. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd: Chichester. 1-17 pp.

Sandrin T.R. Maier, R.M. 2003. Impact of metals on the biodegradation of organic pollutants, Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(8):1093-1101.

Sheldon M, Pinion JC, Klyza J, Zimeri, A, 2019. Pesticide Contamination in Central Kentucky Urban Honey: A Pilot Study. Journal of Environmental Health, 82(1): 8-13.

Singh Z., Kaur J., Kaur R. Hundal, S.S. 2016. Toxic effects of organochlorine pesticides: a review. American Journal of BioScience. Special Issue: Recent Trends in Experimental Toxicology. 4(3-1):11-18.

Tamura K., Stecher G., Peterson D., Filipski A. Kumar S. 2013. MEGA6: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution 30: 2725-2729.

Trevors J.T., Cotter C.M. 1990. Copper toxicity and uptake in microorganisms. Journal of Industrial Microbiology 6: 77-84

Troxell B, Hassan HM. 2013. Transcriptional regulation by ferric uptake regulator (FUR) in pathogenic bacteria. Frontiers in Cellular and Infectious Microbiology, 2003; 3:59.

UNEP, 2019. DDT expert group and its report on the assessment of scientific, technical, environmental and economic information on the production and use of DDT and its alternatives for disease vector control. Conference of the Parties to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants Ninth meeting, Geneva, 29 April-10 May 2019.

Wang G., Zhang J., Wang L., Liang B., Chenk K., Li S. Jiang J. 2010. Co-metabolism of DDT by the newly isolated bacterium, Pseudoxanthomonas sp. wax. Brazilian Journal Microbiology, 41: 431-438.

Wang W. Sun M. 2009. Phylogenetic relationships between Bacillus species and related genera inferred from 16S rDNA sequences. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 40: 505-521.

Yadav I.C., Devi N.L., Syed J.H., Cheng Z., Li J., Zhang G. Jones, K.C. 2015. Current status of persistent organic pesticides residues in air, water, and soil, and their possible effect on neighboring countries: A comprehensive review of India. Science of the Total Environment, 511: 123-137.

Yang R., Xie T., Yang H. Turner S. Wu G. 2018. Historical trends of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) recorded in sediments across the Tibetan Plateau. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 40: 303-312.

Yoon S. H., Ha S.M., Kwon S., Lim J., Kim Y., Seo H., Seo, H. Chun J. 2017. Introducing EzBioCloud: a taxonomically united database of 16S rRNA gene sequences and whole-genome assemblies. International Journal of Systematics and Evolutionary Microbiology, 67:1613-1617.

Zevenhuizen L.P.T.M., Dolfing J., Eshuis E.J., Scholten-Koerselman J. 1979. Inhibitory effects of copper on bacteria related to the free ion concentration. Microbial Ecology 5(2): 139-146


  • There are currently no refbacks.